The Artists’ Resale Right in Canada

The Artists’ Resale Right (ARR) is the right of an artist, or artist’s estate, to benefit financially from sales of works on secondary markets, that is, when a work is bought and sold after the artist’s original sale. The right is embraced as a source of income, or potential income, for artists who depend on their practise for their livelihood.  It is also a source of acknowledgment and information for artists. ARR is well known among visual artists in the many countries where it works. Canada has not yet adopted ARR.

You can support the advocacy for ARR in Canada by writing to your Member of Parliament, by lending your voice to the effort in many other ways, and by financial contributions.  Please visit the websites of CARFAC National and RAAV for the latest information and support tools.

Here are some Frequently Asked Questions, and answers concerning the Artists’ Resale Right, for artists and for art market professionals.

Artists’ Resale Right: FAQ for Artists

What is the Artists' Resale Right (ARR)?
What are CARFAC and RAAV and why are they advocating for the Artists' Resale Right?
Who will benefit from the Artists' Resale Right?
Why are CARFAC and RAAV recommending the Artists' Resale Right as a copyright?
What is CARFAC/RAAV recommending for Canadian Artists' Resale Right?
How much money would I get?
Who pays the Artists' Resale Right royalties?
How do I get paid?
Which works of art are eligible for Artists' Resale Right royalties?
What does it cost to administer the Artists' Resale Right, and who pays those costs? What copyright collecting societies serve the visual arts in Canada?
If CARCC collects my Artists' Resale Right royalties, would they own my copyright?
How can I register for Artists' Resale Right royalties?
Will the Artists' Resale Right only benefit a few wealthy heirs of deceased famous artists?
Will the Artists' Resale Right apply to all sales of art?
What would happen to my Artists' Resale Right when I die?
Won't ARR drive the art market to places like New York, where there is no Artists' Resale Right?

Artists’ Resale Right: FAQ for Art Market Professionals

What is the Artists’ Resale Right (ARR)?
Does Canada have an Artists’ Resale Right?
Who will benefit from the Artists’ Resale Right?
Why are CARFAC and RAAV recommending ARR as a copyright?
What is CARFAC/RAAV recommending for Canadian ARR?
Who pays the Artists Resale Right? 
How is the Artists’ Resale Right calculated?
Which works of art are eligible for Artists’ Resale Right royalties?
Does the art market professional pay the artist directly?
What if an artist is not registered with a collecting society?
What if a work changes hands several times within a short period of time?
What information will the art market professional be required for reporting to the collecting society?
What if a sale falls through or otherwise is cancelled?
Will ARR be costly for the art market?
Won’t the right drive the art market to places like New York, where there is no ARR?
 
Is ARR just another cash grab?

Artists’ Resale Right: FAQ for Artists QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

What is the Artists’ Resale Right (ARR)?

The Artists’ Resale Right (ARR), or droit de suite, entitles an artist to receive a percentage royalty payment when work is resold after the artist first sells the work.

For example, Canadian artist Tony Urquhart sold a painting, The Earth Returns to Life, in 1958 for $250. It was later resold by Heffel Fine Art auction house in 2009 for approximately $10,000.  Had ARR been in place at a rate of 5%, the artist would have received a royalty of $400, assuming collective management administrative costs of 20%.  Without ARR, the artist did not benefit from the increased value of his work.

What are CARFAC and  RAAV   and   why   are  they  advocating   for   the   Artists’   Resale   Right?

Canadian Artists’ Representation   /   Le   Front   des   artistes   canadiens   (CARFAC) is the professional association of Canada's visual artists. The Regroupement des Artistes en arts visuels du Québec (RAAV) is the professional association that represents the interests of the visual artists of Québec.  CARFAC and RAAV are partners in defending artists’ economic and legal rights. ARR is a source of income which is not yet available to Canadian artists because it is yet to be enacted in law.  In May 2013 Scott Simms, Member of Parliament, introduced a private member’s bill, C-516, that proposes the addition of ARR to the Canadian Copyright Act.   ARR is established in many countries and Canadian artists must have the right in Canada in order to benefit from reciprocity should a sale of their work take place outside Canada.

Artists are encouraged to follow the progress of the adoption of ARR and to add their voice to those of CARFAC and RAAV.  Visit the websites to see how you can support the effort.

Who will benefit from the Artists' Resale Right?

 
While all Canadian artists may potentially benefit from ARR, three main demographic groups have the most to gain. Canadian Aboriginal artists have established themselves in the international art market as a unique identity and brand, yet are losing out on the tremendous profits being made on their work in the secondary market. Many artists, particularly those living in isolated communities, sell their work to middlemen at low prices.  Values dramatically increase once work reaches an international market.  ARR, paid through collecting societies with reciprocal agreements with societies in countries where the works are sold, would benefit many Aboriginal artists.

Established artists, many of them senior, could benefit from the Artists' Resale Right. It is often taken for granted that artists thrive once they become established, but CARFAC has found that even Governor General Award winning artists find it difficult, if not impossible, to make a living from their art. The implementation of ARR in Canada would provide greater financial independence for our senior artists, allowing them to benefit from reputations built over a lifetime.

Artists’ estates may benefit, as works are resold after an artist’s death.  Estates are often in need of income, given the expenses related to administering an estate.  Works must be stored and managed, inventories developed and kept, documentation is required, and so on.

Why are CARFAC and RAAV recommending the Artists' Resale Right as a copyright?

The Copyright Act is the preferred legislation for several reasons:

  • The proposed term of the ARR is the same as copyright protection, life plus 50 years.
  • The works that are to be covered by the ARR are the same types of works identified by the Act for most other visual artists’ copyrights.
  • The  artist  and  their  heirs  are  determined  in  the  same  manner  as  set  out  in  the Copyright Act.

Copyright legislation outlines artists’ moral rights, based on a legal recognition of an artist’s continuing relationship with his or her work. The right to receive Artists' Resale Right royalties is similarly derived from the right of attribution of authorship, as it connects the creator with the work after the physical work is sold.

By adding the Artists' Resale Right to our Copyright Act, Canada would be more consistent with most other international copyright laws. While some countries chose to create a new stand-alone Act, at least 22 members   of   the   European   Union   have   included ARR in their   copyright   and intellectual property laws.   Copyright is subject to international laws, such as the Berne Convention, and consistency facilitates reciprocity when works are sold outside of Canada.

What is CARFAC/RAAV recommending for Canadian Artists' Resale Right?

Legislators depend on recommendations from interested groups in order to formulate laws that work.  The proposed Bill C-516 is based largely on CARFAC/RAAV’s recommendations.

How much money would I get? 

Bill C-516 recommends that artists whose works are resold for $500 or more be eligible for compensation. The royalty recommended is 5% of the gross sale not including buyer’s premium or taxes.   Collective management of the right would be mandatory – the right can only be paid through a collective society.  In order to finance the management of the right, the societies may withhold an administrative fee from the amounts paid by the sellers.  The amount withheld is usually 20% of the royalty, but it can vary depending on the societies’ costs.

Who pays the Artists’ Resale Right royalties? 

As is done in most countries, ARR royalties would be paid by art market professionals, such as dealers and auction houses, those in the business of buying and selling art.  Private sales between individuals would be excluded.  While the seller of the work is liable for paying the royalty, mandatory collective management would assure that the artists receive their royalties, relieving the art market professional of the burden of locating and keeping track of artists.

How do I get paid? 

In countries where the right is successfully administered, the Artists' Resale Right is managed by collecting societies serving visual artists.  Sellers report their sales to the societies, which collect the royalties for those artists who are registered with them.  The royalties are paid to the artists by their societies.  For artists who are not registered with a society, there is usually one society charged with locating unregistered artists and paying them.  The collecting societies are affiliated with societies in other countries, thus representing artists in those countries, and having their own members represented abroad.  Artists receive reporting of their works sold, their royalties, and tax receipts reflecting their annual payments.  All an artist has to do is to keep current contact information with his/her society.  Sellers must report and pay the amounts due, but they are relieved by the collecting societies of the responsibility for locating artists and paying them directly.

Which works of art are eligible for Artists’ Resale Right royalties?

Bill C-516 recommends that works of art covered by copyright be eligible, with the following provisos:

  • Works with a sale price of $500 or more, exclusive of buyer’s premium and tax are included.
  • Works sold on the secondary market by an art market professional are included.

In other words, the Artists’ Resale Right does NOT apply to first sales or other first transfers of ownership like donation.  It does NOT apply to private sales between individuals.  It does NOT apply if the work is not covered by copyright, if it is resold for less than $500, or if it is resold in a country that either does not have ARR or an effective system for reciprocating ARR.

What does it cost to administer the Artists’ Resale Right, and who pays those costs?

Generally, it is artists who would pay for the administration of ARR, through a deduction from the royalties collected for them by their collecting societies.  Collecting societies aim to cover their costs, which are normally kept to 20% or less of the amounts collected.  The societies generally deduct administrative fees from the royalties they collect.  So, if a work is sold on the secondary market for $5000 (exclusive of commissions and taxes), the ARR royalty of 5% payable by the seller to the collecting society would be $250.  The society might retain 20% of this amount as administrative fee ($50). The artist’s net royalty, the amount of his or her cheque, would be $200.  If the artist is an eligible foreign national, his or her collecting society would also deduct an administrative fee.

Administrative fees are their main source of income for collecting societies. They do not receive government grants to help them operate.    Their costs include salaries, office expenses, accounting, communications, audit, legal costs, information technology, membership in the society’s international associations, and so on.  Their aim is to serve their artist affiliates, to defend and monetize their rights, and to benefit them financially.   Societies are encouraged by their peers and their affiliates to be transparent in their activities.  The international associations set standards for the operations of collecting societies and membership in those associations is contingent on meeting those standards.

On the sellers’ side, sellers may simply pay the royalty out of the proceeds of a sale, or they may pass the cost back to the buyer, charging the royalty on top of the sale price, as they might with a buyer’s premium, or as they would with a sales tax. 

What copyright collecting societies serve the visual arts in Canada?

There are currently two copyright collectives in Canada specialized in visual arts, and it is recommended that these collectives administer the Artists' Resale Right on behalf of their respective memberships.  In other countries, such as the UK, there may be several societies working with ARR and they co-operate.  Canadian Artists Representation Copyright Collective Inc. (CARCC) is well situated to take on the intake and distribution of royalties, as it already does for its affiliated artists.  Given its direct relationship with CARFAC and RAAV, which have effective communication with a broad diversity of artists’ communities, CARCC is well-positioned to recruit registrations for ARR from artists.  It is recommended that CARCC administer the ARR for artists unaffiliated with a collective as well as its own members. CARCC currently has some 850 artist affiliates.  It negotiates licences and pays royalties to artists related to exhibitions, reproductions, internet and other uses of copyright.   Through agreements, CARCC’s members are represented by collecting societies in some ten countries to date, and more are being added. CARCC is the only collecting society in Canada exclusively dedicated to visual artists.

SODRAC (Society for Reproduction Rights of Authors, Composers, and Publishers) is a music collective with a visual arts component.  It administers the same rights as CARCC, but it has bilateral agreements with a number of collecting societies in other countries, so is well-placed to do foreign distributions of ARR, as it does for royalties related to other rights.  Both societies are members of CISAC, the International Confederation of Authors and Composers Societies, and adhere to their standards.

As well as CARCC and SODRAC, there are two collecting societies, Access Copyright and Copibec, that are specialized in the licensing of photocopies.  Both serve writers and publishers as well as visual artists.  Access Copyright operates in all Canadian provinces and territories with the exception of Quebec, while Copibec serves the territory of Quebec.

If CARCC collects my Artists’ Resale Right royalties, would they own my copyright?

Signing up for ARR royalties does not affect your copyright.  Since the Artists’ Resale Right would not be transferable, you cannot sign it over to anyone, including a collective.  Nevertheless, the law will require collective management of ARR because it is efficient and effective.  You will be asked to choose a collecting society and register with it in order to collect any royalties that may be due to you.  If you do not register, royalties will be collected by a collecting society and held for you for a reasonable length of time while the society tries to locate you.  There will soon be a registration system in place on the CARCC site.  Registration for ARR will not make you a full affiliate of CARCC.  If you want to be a full CARCC affiliate, and take advantage of CARCC’s licensing services, please see the ‘Join CARCC’ section of CARCC’s website or contact CARCC.

How can I register for Artists’ Resale Right royalties?

There will soon be a registration system in place on the CARCC website, even in advance of the law being passed.  Please watch for publicity about it on the CARCC website, the RAAV website or any CARFAC website, or send an email to carcc@carcc.ca to add you name to our ARR mailing list.  Registration will be simple.  The only information required will be your personal information, and your indication that you mandate CARCC to collect for you.  All information will be confidential and kept within CARCC only.

Will the Artists’ Resale Right only benefit a few wealthy heirs of deceased famous artists?

No. While the Artists' Resale Right was initially set up to assist destitute families of deceased artists in France in the 1920s, most countries have updated their legislation since 2001, in order to have a greater impact for living artists, especially those with lower incomes. It is for this reason that CARFAC/RAAV recommends a minimum threshold of $500, so that many artists can benefit from the right – not just those who command high sales prices.

Will the Artists’ Resale Right apply to all sales of art?

No. The right would only apply to secondary sales of original works of art protected by copyright. It would neither apply to first sales, nor to sales between private individuals. It would not apply to sales of works outside copyright. It would not apply to works that sell for less than the qualifying threshold of $500. It would not apply when a work is sold in a country without the Artists' Resale Right, or if an artist is from a country without the right or its effective management.


What would happen to my Artists’ Resale Right when I die?

If, as recommended in Bill C-516, ARR is a copyright, it will last for fifty years after your death.  It will continue to benefit your heirs, and help them with the management of your estate.  You would be able to will your ARR, like your other copyrights, so you should include it in your Will.

Won’t ARR drive the art market to places like New York, where there is no Artists' Resale Right?

Market flight has never materialized in countries that have adopted the Artists' Resale Right, including the UK, which has the largest art market in Europe. The royalties are too modest to provide an incentive to sellers to relocate in order to avoid paying it. Other associated costs will be more influential when deciding where to buy or sell an art work. The cost of exporting an artwork is invariably higher than the royalty. As well, commissions commonly charged by art market professionals are considerably higher.

Art will always be sold where it’s likely to get the best price. CARFAC / RAAV see no real threat of the art market moving abroad because of ARR, as buyers are more likely to purchase Canadian work in Canada.

Artists’ Resale Right: FAQ for Art Market Professionals Questions and answers:

What is the Artists’ Resale Right (ARR)?

The Artists’ Resale Right (ARR) or droit de suite, is a royalty payment that artists receive when their works are resold. ARR allows artists to share in the profits related to sales of their work.  ARR would apply to works sold by auction houses, galleries, or dealers where copyright in the works subsist. There would be other rules determining which works are eligible as well. 

Does Canada have an Artists’ Resale Right?

Canada has not yet adopted ARR into law.  CARFAC, the national association for visual artists, and RAAV, its partner in Quebec, have been advocating for its addition to Canadian law, and support is growing.  Recently Scott Simms, Member of Parliament, introduced Bill C-516 proposing the addition of ARR to Canada’s Copyright Act.  To follow the advocacy effort more closely, and to support it, please visit the associations&rsqursquo; websites.  CARFAC and RAAV are interested in knowing your views on ARR, and how it may affect your business.

Who will benefit from the Artists’ Resale Right?

 
While all Canadian artists may potentially benefit from ARR, three main demographic groups have the most to gain. Canadian Aboriginal artists have established themselves in the international art market as a unique identity and brand, yet are losing out on the profits being made on their work in the secondary market. Many artists, particularly those living in isolated communities, sell their work to middlemen at low prices.  Values can dramatically increase once work reaches an international market.  ARR, paid through collecting societies with reciprocal agreements with societies in countries where the works are sold, would benefit Aboriginal artists. ARR would also benefit artists who live in countries with reciprocating ARR, through the same system of agreements. 

Established artists, many of them senior, could benefit from ARR. It is often taken for granted that artists thrive once they become established, but CARFAC has found that even Governor General Award winning artists find it difficult, if not impossible, to make a living from their art. The implementation of ARR in Canada would provide greater financial independence for senior artists, allowing them to benefit from reputations built over a lifetime.

Artists’ estates may benefit, as works, to which copyright applies over fifty years following the artist’s death, are resold after an artist’s death.  Estates are often in need of income, given the expenses related to administering an estate.  Works must be stored and managed, inventories developed and kept, documentation is required, and so on.

Why are CARFAC and RAAV recommending ARR as a copyright?

The Copyright Act is the preferred legislation for several reasons:

  • The proposed term of the ARR is the same as copyright protection, life plus 50 years.
  • The works that are to be covered by the ARR are the same types of works identified by the Act for most other visual artists’ copyrights.
  • The  artist  and  their  heirs  are  determined  in  the  same  manner  as  set  out in  the Copyright Act.

Copyright legislation outlines artists’ moral rights, based on a legal recognition of an artist’s continuing relationship with his or her work. The right to receive ARR is similarly derived from the right of attribution of authorship, as it connects the creator with the work after the physical work is sold.

By adding ARR to our Copyright Act, Canada would be consistent with most other international copyright laws. While some countries chose to create a new stand-alone Act, at least 22 members   of   the   European   Union   have   included ARR in their   copyright   and intellectual property laws.   Copyright is subject to international laws, such as the Berne Convention, and in order to benefit from reciprocity when works are sold outside of Canada, Canada must adopt ARR.

What is CARFAC/RAAV recommending for Canadian ARR?

Legislators depend on recommendation from interested groups in order to formulate effective laws.  Bill C-516 conforms to CARFAC/RAAV’s recommendations for ARR.

Who pays the Artists Resale Right? 

As is done in most countries, ARR royalties would be paid by art market professionals, such as dealers and auction houses, those in the business of buying and selling art.  Private sales between individuals would be excluded.  While the seller of the work is liable for paying the royalty, mandatory collective management would assure that the artists receive their royalties, relieving the art market professional of the burden of locating and keeping track of artists.

How is the Artists’ Resale Right calculated?

Bill C-516 recommends that ARR apply to sales of eligible works of $500 or more.  The gross royalty paid by the seller is 5% of the proceeds of the sale, exclusive of buyer’s premium and tax.  With mandatory collective management, the seller would report sales to the appropriate collecting society.  The gross royalty would be calculated and charged by the collecting society. The seller would pay the royalty upon receipt of the society’s invoice. From the amount paid by the seller, the society would deduct an administrative fee to cover its costs, and the net royalty would be paid by the society to the artist.

Which works of art are eligible for Artists’ Resale Right royalties?

Bill C-516 recommends that works of art covered by copyright be eligible, with the following provisos:

  • Works with a sale price of $500 or more, exclusive of buyer’s premium and tax are included.
  • Works sold on the secondary market by an art market professional are included.

In other words, the Artists’ Resale Right does NOT apply to first sales or other first transfers of ownership like donation.  It does NOT apply to private sales between individuals.  It does NOT apply if the work is not covered by copyright, if it is resold for less than $500, or if it is resold in a country that either does not have ARR or an effective system for reciprocating ARR.

Does the art market professional pay the artist directly?

With mandatory collective management of ARR, art market professionals would not pay artists directly.  An artist may only claim a royalty through a collecting society.  This approach will limit the responsibility of the seller to reporting and paying the gross royalty, and will charge the collecting society with locating, registering, and paying artists, as well as providing them with tax records.  If artists request a direct payment, they should be directed to register with a collecting society involved with collecting ARR royalties.

There are currently two copyright collectives in Canada specialized in visual arts, and it is recommended that these collectives administer ARR on behalf of their respective memberships.  In other countries, such as the UK, there may be several societies working with ARR and they co-operate.  Canadian Artists Representation Copyright Collective Inc. (CARCC) is well situated to take on the intake and distribution of royalties, as it already does for its affiliated artists.  Given its direct relationship with CARFAC and RAAV, which have effective communication with a broad diversity of artists’ communities, CARCC is in an excellent position to recruit artists to register for ARR.  It is recommended that CARCC administer the ARR for artists unaffiliated with a collective as well as its own members. CARCC currently has some 850 artist affiliates.  It negotiates licences and pays royalties to artists related to exhibitions, reproductions, internet and other uses of copyright.   Through agreements, CARCC’s members are represented by collecting societies in some ten countries to date, and more are being added.

SODRAC (Society for Reproduction Rights of Authors, Composers, and Publishers) is a music collective with a visual arts component.  It administers the same rights as CARCC, but it has bilateral agreements with a number of collecting societies in other countries, so is well-placed to do foreign distributions of ARR, as it does for royalties related to other rights.  Both societies are members of CISAC, the International Confederation of Authors and Composers Societies, and adhere to their standards.

As well as CARCC and SODRAC, there are two collecting societies, Access Copyright and Copibec, that are specialized in the licensing of photocopies.  Both serve writers and publishers as well as visual artists.  Access Copyright operates in all Canadian provinces and territories with the exception of Quebec, while Copibec serves the territory of Quebec.

What if an artist is not registered with a collecting society?

CARFAC recommends that one collecting society be charged with the responsibility of locating unregistered artists and paying them.  CARCC, with its close relationship with CARFAC and RAAV, has many contacts in the artistic community and this network is an excellent finding aid.  As artists become aware of ARR, there will be an incentive to register.  Registration will cost nothing and the artist will not be required to assign rights to the collecting society in order to benefit from ARR.  Any royalties that cannot be paid because an artist has not been located would be held for a recommended period, then disposed of in a proper manner should the artist not be found.

What if a work changes hands several times within a short period of time?

If a work is sold and resold several times, a royalty is due for each transaction provided that the sales qualify.  Consignment of a work to a dealer, for example, is not considered to be a sale if the title of the work never passes to the dealer.  However, should a dealer sell a work to another dealer, transferring the title of the work, this would qualify as a sale.  Should the dealer who purchased the work sell it to a customer, transferring the title, this would qualify as a sale as well and a resale royalty would be due on each transaction.

What information will the art market professional be required for reporting to the collecting society?

Art market professionals will be required to register with the collecting society with basic contact information, for ease of communication.  This information will be confidential and not shared with artists.  Sales may be reported as they happen, or batched and reported on a regular basis.  The collecting society may monitor public sales, such as auctions.  The following information would be required by the society in order to invoice the royalties due and to effectively pay them to the artists:
         
Date of sale
Name of artist
Artist’s year of birth, if known
Artist’s date of death, if known
Artist’s nationality, if known
Title of work sold
Date of creation of work sold, if known
Medium
Edition number, if applicable
Sale price or hammer price (excluding buyer’s premium) for auctions

In the process of paying artists, the collecting society will inform them of the work sold and the type of sale (auction or dealer, for example), the sale price, the date of the sale and the royalty due to them.  No other information is disclosed, unless an artist makes an enquiry as described in Bill C-516.  Even then, confidentiality would be respected.

What if a sale falls through or otherwise is cancelled?

In most circumstances, the collecting society will refund the full royalty as soon as possible.  If the royalty has already been paid, the collecting society will recoup the money from the recipient and will issue a refund once it has received the money.  It is important to inform the collecting society as soon as possible should a sale be cancelled.

Will ARR be costly for the art market?

In order to keep costs low, it is recommended that established collecting societies administer ARR, modelling their activity on that known to work elsewhere. In Europe, the cost of administering the royalty range between 10% and 25% of the royalty – an amount that is deducted from the royalty itself, not paid separately by the art market professional, who pays only the percentage required.  This is in line with the present practises of Canadian collecting societies which retain similar percentages for the administration of other royalties. The societies aim to cover their costs, nothing more.

In other countries, the direct costs to sellers are relatively low. The amount of information required from sellers is minimal – name of the artist, identification of the work sold, selling price.  Lists are easy to generate and send. Once sales are reported, the collecting societies determine who they will pay, and send invoices to the sellers, who must simply pay the bill.  A survey by DACS in the UK discovered that sellers spent less than £10 per quarter in administration. The great majority of British art market professionals have said that the resale right has not damaged their business.

Won’t the right drive the art market to places like New York, where there is no ARR?

This has never materialized in ARR countries, including the UK, which has the largest art market in Europe. The royalties are too modest to provide an incentive to sellers to relocate in order to avoid paying it. Other associated costs will be more influential when deciding where to buy or sell an art work. The cost of exporting an artwork is invariably higher than the royalty. As well, commissions commonly charged by art market professionals are considerably higher.

Is ARR just another cash grab?

The artists’ resale right enables artists to earn a living from their work as its value increases and their reputation grows. Visual artists generally do not produce multiples; they are usually the creators of singular, original objects. By comparison, writers and performing artists have the ability to disseminate mass quantities of their copyright materials through books, CD, DVDs, etc., and are thus able to receive royalty payments for as long as copies of their work sell. ARR helps put visual artists on a level playing field with other creators.  The recommended royalty rate, at 5%, is very low compared to the other overhead costs absorbed by the art market, as standard practice. Even modest royalties can make a difference to an artist’s ability to survive and continue to make art.

Janice Seline
October 15 2013
The research and writing of this article have been generously supported by grants from the Access Copyright Foundation.

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